The author of this book provides an in-depth case study of Urhobo traditional medicine, as practised in the earliest, pre-technological era. He considers definitions, taxonomy, causality, and therapy, as practised by the Urhobo progenitors and later their progeny. He argues that the Urhobo traditional medical system is gradually being eroded by the ageing and death of its custodians and practitioners. The book further investigates the use of incantations and ritual in both Urhobo and Western medical systems, and objectively examines people's claims about its efficacy. The author is a Doctor of Philosophy and a specialist in African traditional religion and culture.